Body painting is a colorful art used by various African cultures to celebrate, protect, and mourn. Traditionally, the paint is gotten from natural ingredients and smoothed on the skin with fingers, sticks, or grasses.
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Ingredients | Uses | Significance of African Face Paintings
Tribal makeup plays an important role in the various groups. The makeup, often consisting of face paint, is used for many different reasons and can signify many different things such as religious, recreational and traditional reasons and also military purposes.
Traditionally, Oil, clay, and chalk are the most common paint ingredients, but the Dinka of southern Sudan have in the past used ash, cattle dung, and urine to make their face paint.
Specific colors are used to indicate certain periods in a person’s life, such as puberty, courting, and marriage, among other things.
It also functions as social marker, distinguishes boys from men, men from older men or outsiders from members of the tribe. In this context, we can mention that the various patterns and paints of the over 3000 African tribes are really different.
Futhermore, face paint is made out of clay in different colours. Each colour and each symbol has a certain meaning.
Black is used to display power, evil, death and mystery, while grey indicates security, authority and stability. Purple commonly means royalty and luxury while yellow is used for joy, energy and warmth, Red stands for danger and blue denotes peace, calmness and confidence.
It is also interesting to mention that tribal art differs depending on a person’s rank in society. The higher your rank is, the more elaborate and complicated your face paint will be.
Face Painting in South Africa
Face painting, or umchokozo, plays a big role in Xhosa culture, and women decorate their faces with white or yellow ochre, and use dots to make patterns on their faces. The decorations are sometimes painted over their eyebrows, the bridge of their noses, and cheeks.
The Xhosa tribe of South Africa also use face paint as a rite of passage. Boys entering adolescence undergo a ritual in which they’re separated from the rest of their tribe and embrace the mentorship of an older man. Once the ritual is over, they’re painted red. Among the Pondo people of South Africa, spiritual leaders paint their faces and bodies white because this establishes a mystical connection between them and their ancestors.
Maasai Face Painting
According to a national census held in 2009, in Kenya, the Maasai tribe numbers about 840,000 people. The Masaai decorate their bodies with beads and jewelry, and wear plugs that greatly enlarge their earlobes. Toya, a former Maasai warrior interviewed by filmmaker Ton van der Lee, reports that young men who are undergoing the ritual of initiation into manhood fashion headdresses made out of lions’ manes or bird feathers. During the initiation, women shave off the men’s hair and paint their heads with red paint.
Wodaabe Face Painting
The Wodaabe’s are known for their elaborate beauty pageants in which heavily decorated men compete for the attention of women. Men paint their noses with white clay and line their eyes with black eyeliner made out of egret bones. They adorn their faces with swirling symmetrical patterns of red, yellow, black and white. The winners of these contests become heroes of their tribes, are remembered for generations, and have the option of choosing brides for themselves.
Karo People of Ethiopia
The Karo people differentiate themselves from many of the neighbouring tribes by excelling specifically in body and face painting. They paint themselves daily with coloured ochre, white chalk, yellow mineral rock, charcoal, and pulverized iron ore, all natural resources local to the area. What’s more, it’s not just the women who use this technique in a bid to be more visually appealing to the opposite sex. The men also paint their faces and bodies to boost their sex appeal.
Nuba People of Sudan
The Nuba males in Sudan are painted and decorated all over their body between 17 and 30 years of age to indicate their life stage.
Witch doctors in Africa paint their face and arms in mostly white colors in a bid to see and communicate with the spirit.
Berber women in Northern Africa
Berber women in Northern Africa paint their hands and feet with intricate henna designs called siyala for their weddings. (Henna is a reddish powder or paste made from the dried leaves of the henna bush).
In Algeria’s Aurès mountains, it used to be a tradition for Berber women to tattoo their bodies and faces. The shapes and symbols they used were both of cosmetic and therapeutic value, as the Berber community in eastern Algeria believed that tattoos could be used to heal illnesses and infertility.